Sunday, August 18, 2019
How Pollution Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate Introduction The main theme of our lesson is how pollution affects ecosystems and the global climate. We aim to teach 4th and 5th grade students about erosion in order for them to gain awareness about the anthropogenic (human-induced) impacts on the environment and global climate change as well as to generate ideas on how they can reduce their own ecological footprints. We feel this is important because the lesson not only educates students, but also motivates them to take action. This lesson will cover many of the Colorado State Academic Standards, not only science-related (Physical and Life Sciences, Science as an Inquiry, and Science in Personal and Social Perspectives), but also those pertaining to geography (Human Systems and Environment and Society) and language arts (Communication Skills and Strategies and Applying Language Skills). There are four essential components to the lesson. The first will serve as a formative assessment of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of pollution by playing a game which asks Ã¢â¬Å"have you everÃ¢â¬ questions (for example, Ã¢â¬Å"have you ever heard of global warming?Ã¢â¬ ). This activity is significant in our lesson because it is a hook to get students thinking about the ways they already help and hurt the environment. The next part will introduce students to the concept of an ecosystem, a fundamental unit of the biosphere. We will present the students with a fish inside of a bowl of water and ask whether or not they think this is an ecosystem. We will then add various other living and non-living components and ask the students each time. Afterwards, we will explain the concept of an ecosystem in further detail. The next activity com... ...obal_climate_change>. Cohen, Jordan, and Nick Hopwood. "Greenhouse Gases and Society." University of Michigan. 26 Sept. 2006 . "Ecosystems." Thinkquest. 26 Sept. 2006 . "Greenhouse Gases: Frequently Asked Questions." NOAA Satellite and Information Service. 1 Dec. 2005. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 26 Sept. 2006 . "National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Standards Key." CSI: Climate Status Investigations. The Keystone Center. 26 Sept. 2006 . Ã¢â¬Å"Types of Pollution.Ã¢â¬ Pollution: A Global Threat to the Environment. 2001. Thinkquest. 27 Sept. 2006
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Nelson Mandela was born July 18, 1918 in Mutate, Transfer, South Africa to the chief of Moved, and after his father's death when he was only nine years old, he was raised by the powerful ruler of the Themes Tribe, Contacting Delineated (Book, 2009). His thoughts were organized and disciplined by his father and guardian, who groomed him to someday be chief. It was not by mere chance that Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa (Book, 2009). Mandela was wise for his years, he dreamed of democracy for his people. He was educated earning a BAA degree in 1942 at University of South Africa.At the University of Watersides he worked on his law degree. Mandela and colleague, Oliver Tomb started South Africans first Black law firm (Book, 2009). Mandela fought tirelessly for the liberation of South Africa. In 1948 Apartheid became the official law of the land in South Africa. Each nationality in South Africa had to live in a separate geographic location, interracial marriage was not allowed, and South Africans had to be registered according to their race (Book, 2009). Mandela arranged a campaign to alleviate the dishonest laws.Charges of treason led him to prison and confinement on several occasions (Book, 2009). The Arriving Trial of 1964 became known all around the world. Mandela again charged with treason but, this time sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole. Appeals for clemency came to South Africa from abroad and the New York Times editorialist the trial charging the government as the guilty party (Book, 2009). However, for the next eighteen years Mandela was restricted to a maximum security prison on Robber Island off the coast of South Africa.Prison was a mere hindrance for Mandela. His conviction to bring about change grew stronger. He led political study groups and put together Judicial appeals or other inmates while he himself was serving a life sentence (Book, 2009). The violence in South Africa was overwhelming and rampant throughout , killing many innocent women and children. In 1980, with strong suggestion from the NC, a campaign was set in motion by the Johannesburg newspaper to free Mandela (Book, 2009). A petition was drafted which thousands of people willingly signed to demand Mandela's freedom.Mandela was held in high regard, the brave representative of Black South African' fight for freedom (Book, 2009). In 1982 Poolrooms Maximum Security Prison became Mandela's next house of horror. The youth of black South Africans gained recognition and compassion from abroad and the government's rising international criticism of its laws had to be addressed (Book, 2009). In 1985 President Booth's attitude changed, Mandela was involved in secret government meetings. Meetings with the minister of Justice, Kebob Cosset were important and beneficial and led to a more promising future for Mandela and South Africa.February 1 1, 1990 Mandela was released from prison (Book, 2009). Months later Mandela set out on a world tour throughout North America and Europe. He was welcomed as a hero and world leader. In Great Britain he met with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. In the US he had discussions with President George H. W. Bush (Book, 2009). In 1991 Apartheid was no more, South Africa became a truly democratic, nonracial government. In 1993, Mandela and F. W. Clerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the peaceful termination of the Apartheid regime (Book, 2009).Also in 1993 another milestone was reached all South Africans were allowed to vote April 24, 1994. Mandela was elected first Black President in South Africa, he served from 1994 to 1999. Mandela and the government of national unity developed a program that testified blacks and attracted investments from abroad. In 1996 Mandela signed a new South African Constitution into law. The document made the government stronger, guaranteed expressions of freedom and minority rights. The lifelong dream of President Mandela was realized (Book, 2009).Mandel a continued to serve South Africa after he was no longer president (Book, 2009). He died in his home in Johannesburg December 5, 2013. Dry. Martin Luther King, Jar was an American Pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African- American Civil Rights movement. He was born January, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. Unlike Nelson Mandela, he was nonviolent in his pursuit for civil rights. He fought for civil rights until his assassination April 4, 1968 (Martin Luther King, 2011) He was born Michael King, Jar. To a Baptist minister in rural Georgia.Michael King, Sir. Adopted the name in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther, which he later followed suit (Martin Luther King, 2011). Martin Luther King had a religious upbringing. His father and grandfather were both Baptist ministers. By the time he was 25 years of age he was the pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church and had completed his Ph. D. In 1955 Martin Luther King, 2011). In 1955 The Montgomery Bus Boyco tt of 1955 spearheaded by Dry. King was a demonstration that led to change in the civil rights of black people.Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, she was removed from the bus and Jailed. Rosa Parks and 5 other women appeared as ordered, represented by a lawyer, sued the court for segregation on buses (Martin Luther King, 2011). The Montgomery federal court ruled that segregation on buses violated the 14th amendment. The bus boycott came to an end December 1956 and the Supreme Court prohibited segregation on buses (Martin Luther King, 2011). Black people were no longer required to sit on the back of the bus.Also this courageous boycott aided in the dissolution of the Jim Crow Laws. In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jar. And his constituents assembled the famous March on Washington that congregated more than 200,000 people to the Lincoln Memorial. King made his most renowned, Ã¢â¬Å"l Have a Dream,Ã¢â¬ speech (Martin Luther King, 2011). In effect the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was constructed. The federal government has declared desegregation of public facilities illegal (Martin Luther King, 2011). While it did not resolve all problems of coordination, the law lessened racial restrictions.
14. You Know Things Are Bad When You Feel Guilty For Being Rude To Vampires VAMPIRES When I got back to the house, there was no one waiting outside for my report. Still on alert? Everything's cool,I thought tiredly. My eyes quickly caught a small change in the now-familiar scene. There was a stack of light-colored fabric on the bottom step of the porch. I loped over to investigate. Holding my breath, because the vampire smell stuck to the fabric like you wouldn't believe, I nudged the stack with my nose. Someone had laid out clothes. Huh. Edward must have caught my moment of irritation as I'd bolted out the door. Well. That wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ nice. And weird. I took the clothes gingerly between my teeth Ã¢â¬â ugh Ã¢â¬â and carried them back to the trees. Just in case this was some joke by the blond psychopath and I had a bunch of girls' stuff here. Bet she'd love to see the look on my human face as I stood there naked, holding a sundress. In the cover of the trees, I dropped the stinking pile and shifted back to human. I shook the clothes out, snapping them against a tree to beat some of the smell from them. They were definitely guy's clothes Ã¢â¬â tan pants and a white button-down shirt. Neither of them long enough, but they looked like they'd fit around me. Must be Emmett's. I rolled the cuffs up on the shirtsleeves, but there wasn't much I could do about the pants. Oh well. I had to admit, I felt better with some clothes to my name, even stinky ones that didn't quite fit. It was hard not being able to just jet back home and grab another pair of old sweatpants when I needed them. The homeless thing again Ã¢â¬â not having anyplace to go back to. No possessions, either, which wasn't bothering me too bad now, but would probably get annoying soon. Exhausted, I walked slowly up the Cullens' porch steps in my fancy new secondhand clothes but hesitated when I got to the door. Did I knock? Stupid, when they knew I was here. I wondered why no one acknowledged that Ã¢â¬â told me either to come in or get lost Whatever. I shrugged and let myself in. More changes. The room had shifted back to normal Ã¢â¬â almost Ã¢â¬â in the last twenty minutes. The big flat-screen was on, low volume, showing some chick flick that no one seemed to be watching. Carlisle and Esme stood by the back windows, which were open to the river again. Alice, Jasper, and Emmett were out of sight, but I heard them murmuring upstairs. Bella was on the couch like yesterday, with just one tube still hooked into her, and an IV hanging behind the back of the sofa. She was wrapped up like a burrito in a couple of thick quilts, so at least they'd listened to me before. Rosalie was cross-legged on the ground by her head. Edward sat at the other end of the couch with Bella's burrito'ed feet in his lap. He looked up when I came in and smiled at me Ã¢â¬â just a little twitch of his mouth Ã¢â¬â like something pleased him. Bella didn't hear me. She only glanced up when he did, and then she smiled, too. With real energy, her whole face lighting up. I couldn't remember the last time she'd looked so excited to see me. What was with her? For crying out loud, she was married] Happily married, too Ã¢â¬â there was no question that she was in love with her vampire past the boundaries of sanity. And hugely pregnant, to top it off. So why did she have to be so damn thrilled to see me? Like I'd made her whole freakin' day by walking through the door. If she would just not careÃ¢â¬ ¦ Or more than that Ã¢â¬â really not want me around. It would be so much easier to stay away. Edward seemed to be in agreement with my thoughts Ã¢â¬â we were on the same wavelength so much lately it was crazy. He was frowning now, reading her face while she beamed at me. Ã¢â¬Å"They just wanted to talk,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled, my voice dragging with exhaustion. Ã¢â¬Å"No attack on the horizon.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ Edward answered. Ã¢â¬Å"I heard most of it.Ã¢â¬ That woke me up a little. We'd been a good three miles out. Ã¢â¬Å"How?Ã¢â¬ Tm hearing you more clearly Ã¢â¬â it's a matter of familiarity and concentration. Also, your thoughts are slightly easier to pick up when you're in your human form. So I caught most of what passed out there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh.Ã¢â¬ It bugged me a little, but for no good reason, so I shrugged it off. Ã¢â¬Å"Good. I hate repeating myself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'd tell you to go get some sleep,Ã¢â¬ Bella said, Ã¢â¬Å"but my guess is that you're going to pass out on the floor in about six seconds, so there's probably no point.Ã¢â¬ It was amazing how much better she sounded, how much stronger she looked. I smelled fresh blood and saw that the cup was in her hands again. How much blood would it take to keep her going? At some point, would they start trotting in the neighbors? I headed for the door, counting off the seconds for her as I walked. Ã¢â¬Å"One MississippiÃ¢â¬ ¦ two MississippiÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Where's the flood, mutt?Ã¢â¬ Rosalie muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"You know how you drown a blonde, Rosalie?Ã¢â¬ I asked without stopping or turning to look at her. Ã¢â¬Å"Glue a mirror to the bottom of a pool.Ã¢â¬ I heard Edward chuckle as I pulled the door shut. His mood seemed to improve in exact correlation to Bella's health. Ã¢â¬Å"I've already heard that one,'7Rosalie called after me. I trudged down the steps, my only goal to drag myself far enough into the trees that the air would be pure again. I planned to ditch the clothes a convenient distance from the house for future use rather than tying them to my leg, so I wouldn't be smelling them, either. As I fumbled with the buttons on the new shirt, I thought randomly about how buttons would never be in style for werewolves. I heard the voices while I slogged across the lawn. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are you going?Ã¢â¬ Bella asked. Ã¢â¬Å"There was something I forgot to say to him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Let Jacob sleep Ã¢â¬â it can wait.Ã¢â¬ Yes, please, let Jacob sleep. Ã¢â¬Å"It will only take a moment.Ã¢â¬ I turned slowly. Edward was already out the door. He had an apology in his expression as he approached me. Ã¢â¬Å"Jeez, what now?Ã¢â¬ Tm sorry,Ã¢â¬ he said, and then he hesitated, like he didn't know how to phrase what he was thinking. What's on your mind, mind reader? Ã¢â¬Å"When you were speaking to Sam's delegates earlier,Ã¢â¬ he murmured, Ã¢â¬Å"I was giving a play-by-play for Carlisle and Esme and the rest. They were concerned Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Look, we're not dropping our guard. You don't have to believe Sam like we do. We're keeping our eyes open regardless.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, no, Jacob. Not about that. We trust your judgment. Rather, Esme was troubled by the hardships this is putting your pack through. She asked me to speak to you privately about it.Ã¢â¬ That took me off guard. Ã¢â¬Å"Hardships?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The homeless part, particularly. She's very upset that you are all soÃ¢â¬ ¦ bereft.Ã¢â¬ I snorted. Vampire mother hen Ã¢â¬â bizarre. Ã¢â¬Å"We're tough. Tell her not to worry.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She'd still like to do what she can. I got the impression that Leah prefers not to eat in her wolf form?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And?Ã¢â¬ I demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, we do have normal human food here, Jacob. Keeping up appearances, and, of course, for Bella. Leah is welcome to anything she'd like. All of you are.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'll pass that along.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Leah hates us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So try to pass it along in such a way as to make her consider it, if you don't mind.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'll do what I can.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And then there's the matter of clothes.Ã¢â¬ I glanced down at the ones I was wearing. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh yeah. Thanks.Ã¢â¬ It probably wouldn't be good manners to mention how bad they reeked. He smiled, just a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, we're easily able to help out with any needs there. Alice rarely allows us to wear the same thing twice. We've got piles of brand-new clothes that are destined for Goodwill, and I'd imagine that Leah is fairly close to Esme's size___Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not sure how she'll feel about bloodsucker castoffs. She's not as practical as I am.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I trust that you can present the offer in the best possible light. As well as the offer for any other physical object you might need, or transportation, or anything else at all. And showers, too, since you prefer to sleep outdoors. PleaseÃ¢â¬ ¦ don't consider yourselves without the benefits of a home.Ã¢â¬ He said the last line softly Ã¢â¬â not trying to keep quiet this time, but with some kind of real emotion. I stared at him for a second, blinking sleepily. Ã¢â¬Å"That's, er, nice of you. Tell Esme we appreciate the, uh, thought. But the perimeter cuts through the river in a few places, so we stay pretty clean, thanks.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you would pass the offer on, regardless.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, sure.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you.Ã¢â¬ I turned away from him, only to stop cold when I heard the low, pained cry from inside the house. By the time I looked back, he was already gone. What now? I followed after him, shuffling like a zombie. Using about the same number of brain cells, too. It didn't feel like I had a choice. Something was wrong. I would go see what it was. There would be nothing I could do. And I would feel worse. It seemed inevitable. I let myself in again. Bella was panting, curled over the bulge in the center of her body. Rosalie held her while Edward, Carlisle, and Esme all hovered. A flicker of motion caught my eye; Alice was at the top of the stairs, staring down into the room with her hands pressed to her temples. It was weird Ã¢â¬â like she was barred from entering somehow. Ã¢â¬Å"Give me a second, Carlisle,Ã¢â¬ Bella panted. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella,Ã¢â¬ the doctor said anxiously, Ã¢â¬Å"I heard something crack. I need to take a look.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Pretty sureÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â pant Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"it was a rib. Ow. Yep. Right here.Ã¢â¬ She pointed to her left side, careful not to touch. It was breaking her bones now. Ã¢â¬Å"I need to take an X-ray. There might be splinters. We don't want it to puncture anything.Ã¢â¬ Bella took a deep breath. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay.Ã¢â¬ Rosalie lifted Bella carefully. Edward seemed like he was going to argue, but Rosalie bared her teeth at him and growled, Ã¢â¬Å"I've already got her.Ã¢â¬ So Bella was stronger now, but the thing was, too. You couldn't starve one without starving the other, and healing worked just the same. No way to win. Blondie carried Bella swiftly up the big staircase with Carlisle and Edward right on her heels, none of them taking any notice of me standing dumbstruck in the doorway. So they had a blood bank and an X-ray machine? Guess the doc brought his work home with him. I was too tired to follow them, too tired to move. I leaned back against the wall and then slid to the ground. The door was still open, and I pointed my nose toward it, grateful for the clean breeze blowing in. I leaned my head against the jamb and listened. I could hear the sound of the X-ray machinery upstairs. Or maybe I just assumed that's what it was. And then the lightest of footsteps coming down the stairs. I didn't look to see which vampire it was. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want a pillow?Ã¢â¬ Alice asked me. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled. What was with the pushy hospitality? It was creeping me out. Ã¢â¬Å"That doesn't look comfortable,Ã¢â¬ she observed. Ã¢â¬Å"S'not.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why don't you move, then?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tired. Why aren't you upstairs with the rest of them?Ã¢â¬ I shot back. Ã¢â¬Å"Headache,Ã¢â¬ she answered. I rolled my head around to look at her. Alice was a tiny little thing. Ã¢â¬ËBout the size of one of my arms. She looked even smaller now, sort of hunched in on herself. Her small face was pinched. Ã¢â¬Å"Vampires get headaches?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not the normal ones.Ã¢â¬ I snorted. Normal vampires. Ã¢â¬Å"So how come you're never with Bella anymore?Ã¢â¬ I asked, making the question an accusation. It hadn't occurred to me before, because my head had been full of other crap, but it was weird that Alice was never around Bella, not since I'd been here. Maybe if Alice were by her side, Rosalie wouldn't be. Ã¢â¬Å"Thought you two were like this.Ã¢â¬ I twisted two of my fingers together. Ã¢â¬Å"Like I saidÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â she curled up on the tile a few feet from me, wrapping her skinny arms around her skinny knees Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"headache.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Bella's giving you a headache?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ I frowned. Pretty sure I was too tired for riddles. I let my head roll back around toward the fresh air and closed my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Not Bella, really,Ã¢â¬ she amended. Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ¢â¬ ¦ fetus.Ã¢â¬ Ah, someone else who felt like I did. It was pretty easy to recognize. She said the word grudgingly, the way Edward did. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't see it,Ã¢â¬ she told me, though she might have been talking to herself. For all she knew, I was already gone. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't see anything about it. Just like you.Ã¢â¬ I flinched, and then my teeth ground together. I didn't like being compared to the creature. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella gets in the way. She's all wrapped around it, so she'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ blurry. Like bad reception on a TV Ã¢â¬â like trying to focus your eyes on those fuzzy people jerking around on the screen. It's killing my head to watch her. And I can't see more than a few minutes ahead, anyway. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦ fetus is too much a part of her future. When she first decidedÃ¢â¬ ¦ when she knew she wanted it, she blurred right out of my sight. Scared me to death.Ã¢â¬ She was quiet for a second, and then she added, Ã¢â¬Å"I have to admit, it's a relief having you close by Ã¢â¬â in spite of the wet-dog smell. Everything goes away. Like having my eyes closed. It numbs the headache.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Happy to be of service, ma'am,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder what it has in common with youÃ¢â¬ ¦ why you're the same that way.Ã¢â¬ Sudden heat flashed in the center of my bones. I clenched my fists to hold off the tremors. Ã¢â¬Å"I have nothing in common with that life-sucker,Ã¢â¬ I said through my teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, there's something there.Ã¢â¬ I didn't answer. The heat was already burning away. I was too dead tired to stay furious. Ã¢â¬Å"You don't mind if I sit here by you, do you?Ã¢â¬ she asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Guess not. Stinks anyway.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"This is the best thing for it, I guess, since I can't take aspirin.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Could you keep it down? Sleeping, here.Ã¢â¬ She didn't respond, immediately lapsing into silence. I was out in seconds. I was dreaming that I was really thirsty. And there was a big glass of water in front of me Ã¢â¬â all cold, you could see the condensation running down the sides. I grabbed the cup and took a huge gulp, only to find out pretty quick that it wasn't water Ã¢â¬â it was straight bleach. I choked it back out, spewing it everywhere, and a bunch of it blew out of my nose. It burned. My nose was on fireÃ¢â¬ ¦. The pain in my nose woke me up enough to remember where I'd fallen asleep. The smell was pretty fierce, considering that my nose wasn't actually inside the house. Ugh. And it was noisy. Someone was laughing too loud. A familiar laugh, but one that didn't go with the smell. Didn't belong. I groaned and opened my eyes. The skies were dull gray Ã¢â¬â it was daytime, but no clue as to when. Maybe close to sunset Ã¢â¬â it was pretty dark. Ã¢â¬Å"About time,Ã¢â¬ Blondie mumbled from not too far away. Ã¢â¬Å"The chainsaw impersonation was getting a little tired.Ã¢â¬ I rolled over and wrenched myself into a sitting position. In the process, I figured out where the smell was coming from. Someone had stuffed a wide feather pillow under my face. Probably trying to be nice, I'd guess. Unless it'd been Rosalie. Once my face was out of the stinking feathers, I caught other scents. Like bacon and cinnamon, all mixed up with the vampire smell. I blinked, taking in the room. Things hadn't changed too much, except that now Bella was sitting up in the middle of the sofa, and the IV was gone. Blondie sat at her feet, her head resting against Bella's knees. Still gave me chills to see how casually they touched her, though I guess that was pretty brain-dead, all things considered. Edward was on one side of her, holding her hand. Alice was on the floor, too, like Rosalie. Her face wasn't pinched up now. And it was easy to see why Ã¢â¬â she'd found another painkiller. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Jake's coming around!Ã¢â¬ Seth crowed. He was sitting on Bella's other side, his arm slung carelessly over her shoulders, an overflowing plate of food on his lap. What the hell? Ã¢â¬Å"He came to find you,Ã¢â¬ Edward said while I got to my feet. Ã¢â¬Å"And Esme convinced him to stay for breakfast.Ã¢â¬ Seth took in my expression, and he hurried to explain. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, Jake Ã¢â¬â I was just checking to see if you were okay 'cause you didn't ever phase back. Leah got worried. I told her you probably just crashed human, but you know how she is. Anyway, they had all this food and, dang,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â he turned to Edward Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"man, you can cookÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you,Ã¢â¬ Edward murmured. I inhaled slowly, trying to unclench my teeth. I couldn't take my eyes off Seth's arm. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella got cold,Ã¢â¬ Edward said quietly. Right. None of my business, anyway. She didn't belong to me. Seth heard Edward's comment, looked at my face, and suddenly he needed both hands to eat with. He took his arm off Bella and dug in. i walked over to stand a few feet from the couch, still trying to get my bearings. Ã¢â¬Å"Leah running patrol?Ã¢â¬ I asked Seth. My voice was still thick with sleep. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ he said as he chewed. Seth had new clothes on, too. They fit him better than mine fit me. Ã¢â¬Å"She's on it. No worries. She'll howl if there's anything. We traded off around midnight. I ran twelve hours.Ã¢â¬ He was proud of that, and it showed in his tone. Ã¢â¬Å"Midnight? Wait a minute Ã¢â¬â what time is it now?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËBout dawn.Ã¢â¬ He glanced toward the window, checking. Well, damn. I'd slept through the rest of the day and the whole night Ã¢â¬â dropped the ball. Ã¢â¬Å"Crap. Sorry about that, Seth. Really. You shoulda kicked me awake.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Naw, man, you needed some serious sleep. You haven't taken a break since when? Night before your last patrol for Sam? Like forty hours? Fifty? You're not a machine, Jake. Ã¢â¬ËSides, you didn't miss anything at all.Ã¢â¬ Nothing at all? I glanced quickly at Bella. Her color was back to the way I remembered it. Pale, but with the rose undertone. Her lips were pink again. Even her hair looked better Ã¢â¬â shinier. She saw me appraising and gave me a qrin. Ã¢â¬Å"How's the rib?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Taped up nice and tight, i don't even feel it.'7 I rolled my eyes. I heard Edward grind his teeth together, and I figured her blow-it-off attitude bugged him as much at it bugged me. Ã¢â¬Å"What's for breakfast?Ã¢â¬ I asked, a little sarcastic. Ã¢â¬Å"O negative or AB positive?Ã¢â¬ She stuck her tongue out at me. Totally herself again. Ã¢â¬Å"Omelets,Ã¢â¬ she said, but her eyes darted down, and I saw that her cup of blood was wedged between her leg and Edward's. Ã¢â¬Å"Go get some breakfast, Jake,Ã¢â¬ Seth said. Ã¢â¬Å"There's a bunch in the kitchen. You've got to be empty.Ã¢â¬ I examined the food in his lap. Looked like half a cheese omelet and the last fourth of a Frisbee-sized cinnamon roll. My stomach growled, but I ignored it. Ã¢â¬Å"What's Leah having for breakfast?Ã¢â¬ I asked Seth critically. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, I took food to her before I ate anythingÃ¢â¬ he defended himself. Ã¢â¬Å"She said she'd rather eat roadkill, but I bet she caves. These cinnamon rollsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ He seemed at a loss for words. Ã¢â¬ËTil go hunt with her, then.Ã¢â¬ Seth sighed as I turned to leave. Ã¢â¬Å"A moment, Jacob?Ã¢â¬ It was Carlisle asking, so when I turned around again, my face was probably less disrespectful than it would have been if anyone else had stopped me. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah?Ã¢â¬ Carlisle approached me while Esme drifted off toward the other room. He stopped a few feet away, just a little bit farther away than the normal space between two humans having a conversation. I appreciated him giving me my space. Ã¢â¬Å"Speaking of hunting,Ã¢â¬ he began in a somber tone. Ã¢â¬Å"That's going to be an issue for my family. I understand that our previous truce is inoperative at the moment, so I wanted your advice. Will Sam be hunting for us outside of the perimeter you've created? We don't want to take a chance with hurting any of your family Ã¢â¬â or losing any of ours. If you were in our shoes, how would you proceed?Ã¢â¬ I leaned away, a little surprised, when he threw it back at me like that. What would I know about being in a bloodsucker's expensive shoes? But, then again, I did know Sam. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a risk,Ã¢â¬ I said, trying to ignore the other eyes I felt on me and to talk only to him. Ã¢â¬Å"Sam's calmed down some, but I'm pretty sure that in his head, the treaty is void. As long as he thinks the tribe, or any other human, is in real danger, he's not going to ask questions first, if you know what I mean. But, with all that, his priority is going to be La Push. There really aren't enough of them to keep a decent watch on the people while putting out hunting parties big enough to do much damage. I'd bet he's keeping it close to home.Ã¢â¬ Carlisle nodded thoughtfully. Ã¢â¬Å"So I guess I'd say, go out together, just in case. And probably you should go in the day, 'cause we'd be expecting night. Traditional vampire stuff. You're fast Ã¢â¬â go over the mountains and hunt far enough away that there's no chance he'd send anyone that far from home.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And leave Bella behind, unprotected?Ã¢â¬ I snorted. Ã¢â¬Å"What are we, chopped liver?Ã¢â¬ Carlisle laughed, and then his face was serious again. Ã¢â¬Å"Jacob, you can't fight against your brothers.Ã¢â¬ My eyes tightened. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not saying it wouldn't be hard, but if they were really coming to kill her Ã¢â¬â I would be able to stop them.Ã¢â¬ Carlisle shook his head, anxious. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I didn't mean that you would beÃ¢â¬ ¦ incapable. But that it would be very wrong. I can't have that on my conscience.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It wouldn't be on yours, Doc. It would be on mine. And I can take it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, Jacob. We will make sure that our actions don't make that a necessity.Ã¢â¬ He frowned thoughtfully Ã¢â¬Å"We'll go three at a time,Ã¢â¬ he decided after a second. Ã¢â¬Å"That's probably the best we can do.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know, Doc. Dividing down the middle isn't the best strategy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We've got some extra abilities that will even it up. If Edward is one of the three, he'll be able to give us a few miles' radius of safety.Ã¢â¬ We both glanced at Edward. His expression had Carlisle backtracking quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sure there are other ways, too,Ã¢â¬ Carlisle said. Clearly, there was no physical need strong enough to get Edward away from Bella now. Ã¢â¬Å"Alice, I would imagine you could see which routes would be a mistake?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The ones that disappear,Ã¢â¬ Alice said, nodding. Ã¢â¬Å"Easy.Ã¢â¬ Edward, who had gone all tense with Carlisle's first plan, loosened up. Bella was staring unhappily at Alice, that little crease between her eyes that she got when she was stressed out. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, then,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"That's settled. I'll just be on my way. Seth, I'll expect you back on at dusk, so get a nap in there somewhere, all right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, Jake. I'll phase back soon as I'm done. Unless Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ he hesitated, looking at Bella. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you need me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's got blankets,Ã¢â¬ I snapped at him. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm fine, Seth, thanks,Ã¢â¬ Bella said quickly. And then Esme flitted back in the room, a big covered dish in her hands. She stopped hesitantly just behind Carlisle's elbow, her wide, dark gold eyes on my face. She held the dish out and took a shy step closer. Ã¢â¬Å"Jacob,Ã¢â¬ she said quietly. Her voice wasn't quite so piercing as the others'. Ã¢â¬Å"I know it'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ unappetizing to you, the idea of eating here, where it smells so unpleasant. But I would feel much better if you would take some food with you when you go. I know you can't go home, and that's because of us. Please Ã¢â¬â ease some of my remorse. Take something to eat.Ã¢â¬ She held the food out to me, her face all soft and pleading. I don't know how she did it, because she didn't look older than her mid-twenties, and she was bone pale, too, but something about her expression suddenly reminded me of my mom. Jeez. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, sure, sure,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"I guess. Maybe Leah's still hungry or something.Ã¢â¬ I reached out and took the food with one hand, holding it away, at arm's length. I'd go dump it under a tree or something. I didn't want her to feel bad. Then I remembered Edward. Don't you say anything to her! Let her think I ate it. I didn't look at him to see if he was in agreement. He'd better be in agreement. Bloodsucker owed me. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, Jacob,Ã¢â¬ Esme said, smiling at me. How did a stone face have dimples, for crying out loud? Ã¢â¬Å"Urn, thank you,Ã¢â¬ I said. My face felt hot Ã¢â¬â hotter than usual. This was the problem with hanging out with vampires Ã¢â¬â you got used to them. They started messing up the way you saw the world. They started feeling like friends. Ã¢â¬Å"Will you come back later, Jake?Ã¢â¬ Bella asked as I tried to make a run for it. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, I don't know.Ã¢â¬ She pressed her lips together, like she was trying not to smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Please? I might get cold.Ã¢â¬ I inhaled deeply through my nose, and then realized, too late, that that was not a good idea. I winced. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jacob?Ã¢â¬ Esme asked. I backed toward the door as she continued; she took a few steps after me. Ã¢â¬Å"I left a basket of clothes on the porch. They're for Leah. They're freshly washed Ã¢â¬â I tried to touch them as little as possible.Ã¢â¬ She frowned. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you mind taking them to her?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"On it,Ã¢â¬ I muttered, and then I ducked out the door before anyone could guilt me into anything else.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Assessment Tool Analysis NUR/440 Assessment Tool Analysis Nursing has evolved throughout the years to become more than a job, it is a profession. Jean Watson developed her own theory in the late 1970s because she believes there was something missing from the profession. Jean Watson believes that nursing is a profession that allows the caregiver and the person cared for an opportunity to provide care on a basis that involves the mind, body, and spirit, which are the three parts of being. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s carative factors allow the nurse and patient to relate on a more personal level.These carative factors are used as a guide for providing nursing care. To name but a few, they are: Faith/Hope: Ã¢â¬Å"being authentically present, and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and the one-being-cared-forÃ¢â¬ (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). Expressing positive and negative feelings: Ã¢â¬Å"being present to, and supportive of, the expression of posi tive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one-being-cared-forÃ¢â¬ (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51).Sensitivity to self and others: Ã¢â¬Å"cultivation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassionÃ¢â¬ (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). Existential-Phenomenological-Spiritual forces: Ã¢â¬Å"opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious and existential dimensions of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own life-death; soul care for self and the one-being-cared-forÃ¢â¬ (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). There are several tools that assist health care providers in the assessment process.One tool is the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress (CRIS). Ã¢â¬Å"CRIS is designed to measure a personÃ¢â¬â¢s coping resources, including personal behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, in addition to physical beingÃ¢â¬ (Weinberg, 2012, para. 1). The CRIS scale has been valid when predicting illne sses, distress, and satisfaction. The inventory is made up of several hundred questions, which are broken down into several categories and can be time consuming. This scale can be used on any population but results are not easily attained without specific equipment.This inventory can be taken by anyone who is at a seventh grade level or higher. According to Weinberg (2012), the user cannot gain information or understand about scalesÃ¢â¬â¢ item content as a basis for learning about the meaning of each scale score (Coping Resources Inventory for Stress, para. 10). This assessment tool would not be beneficial to a nurse in a hospital setting. The Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP) is also another assessment tool. It is a Ã¢â¬Å"multidimensional psychological self-report scale which serves as a screening and outcome measure of stressÃ¢â¬ (Shirley, 2012, para. ). The DSP is in the form of a questionnaire and is easily given. This tool can be used on any population and the validity of th e test is questionable, but more research should be obtained. There is a manual for using this tool, but the reliability is not available. The DSP would be better used for study and research projects rather than an assessment guide for nurses. The third tool is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Ã¢â¬Å"The PSS is not a diagnostic instrument, but it is proposed to make comparisons between individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ perceived stress related to current, objective events.The higher the degree of PSS score indicates the higher risk factor for some disordersÃ¢â¬ (Al kalaldeh & Abu Shosha, 2012, p. 45). This test should be given to a population with a high school education at least. It also can be given to any population group. This test can be taken in minutes and is easy to score and make a determination. This test appears to be valid and is not costly. This would be a helpful assessment tool for nurses in a hospital setting. These three tools can help determine stressors and their levels in the Hispanic population.The PSS would be the more convenient choice for a quick glance at current stressors in patientÃ¢â¬â¢s daily living. The nurse would have instant scores, versus the DSP and CRIS, which take longer to take and receive scores. The nurse would better be able to address patient concerns and modify the plan of care according to the patients needs. We as nurses do reflect on experiences as we interact with our patients daily. It is crucial to sympathize with the patient to give the patient what he or she needs, whether it be listening, educating, or just holding hands.Subjective and objective data are very important in maintaining a nurse/patient relationship. Allowing the patient to hope and encourage them to reach out to others makes a difference in their state of wellbeing. Health care professionals have realized how important the unity of the body, mind, and spirit are to the healing process. All three determine the sense of wellness that a patient feels when all are in harmony with each other. Watson believes that if we can connect with our patients on a personal level and be able to reflect on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, then we are capable of providing care.Nursing is much more than administering medications, making sure the patient has eaten and is clean and dry. Nurses have to provide a deeper side of their self to be successful in reaching all of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. As a nurse, I believe that by following WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, this allows others to see what their strengths and weaknesses are, and how they can make necessary changes to become a caring healthcare provider. I have learned in my own career as a nurse that by not opening up and willing to care for the whole being, I am acting as a robot with no feeling.I have seen how my patients open up and am more relaxed when they can sense genuine care from me. When I am conscious of how I am feeling and how I am responding to my patient, I can provide a more caring att itude. It is important to be aware of my surroundings and consider my patientÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of his or her environment. Watson challenges the health care providers to examine their self. She encourages nurses to reflect on our own humanity and spirituality. The transpersonal caring allows healthcare providers the ability to look into oneself and reflect upon.The Caring moments allows the health care provider to be on the same level as the one being cared for. Encouraging one-self to look at every aspect of providing care can make nursing a rewarding profession. References: Al kalaldeh, M. T. , & Abu Shosha, G. M. (2012, July). Application of The Perceived Stress Scale In Health Care Studies. International Journal of Acaemic Research, 4(4), Cara, C. (2003). A Pragmatic View. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(3), 51. RetrievedÃ fromÃ http://ehis. bscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=4&hid=3&sid=9d27d7da-2ca9-43f3-a9b9-b2942816f737%40sessionmgr4 Shirley, M. C. (2 012, Month Day). Derogatis Stress Profile. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com/eds/detail? sid=1cf3c146-2540-421a-9d73-9962c69118c1%40sessionmgr115&vid=34&hid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d Weinberg, S. L. (2012, Month Day). Coping Resources Inventory for Stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from
Thursday, August 15, 2019
What are some of the challenges associated with using the chase strategy and why? The chase strategy is one of three production strategies for aggregate planning in use today. Chase strategy is a form of demand matching. This is done by forecasting the expected demand set by previous sales or projected sales. The purpose of this is to meet or match the demand of their customers. It is also an appropriate strategy with variable demand such as seasonal items. The chase strategy is mostly used in service based industry that concentrate on meeting demand. Due to the unforeseen forecast, the company must hire and fire their employee to meet the production needs. United parcel service and Wal-Mart are examples of companies that use chase strategy. During the holiday season beginning in November, United Parcel Service and Wal-Mart hire seasonal workers to meet the increase in volume. This means that both of these companies expect to be busy and the opportunity to generate revenue is availab le if they have the correct number of employees in place. A primary advantage is the flexibility to meet demand fluctuations. Another advantage is both of these companies do not have to pay for benefits such as medical, dental, or provide retirement since these employees are not vested. According to Seeking Alpha, United Parcel Service expects to pick up 32 million packages on December 2, 2013, which is the first Monday after Thanksgiving and known as Cyber Monday, this will be more packages than 10% last year. On Cyber Monday, online retailers provide steep discounts for holiday shoppers. To handle this increased workload in the holiday season, UPS will hire 55,000 seasonal employees across the U.S. Reference: How This Holiday Season Will Be A Blessing For UPS. (2013, November 3). Retrieved September 26, 2014, from http://seekingalpha.com/article/1800442-how-this-holiday-season-will-be-a-blessing-for-ups
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËI am an American, not an Asian-American. My rejection of hyphenation has been called race treachery, but it is really a demand that America deliver the promises of its dream to all its citizens equally.' What is identity? Many of us would think that the answer to this question is simple but once placed on the stop and asked to answer it, the answer creates more of an issue than the question. Identity can be defined in many different ways and there is more than one identity. The most obvious of these is an individual identity, regarding one person and their ability to establish their identity and locate themselves. There are also social identities, and collective identities. Usually identity is to do with ideas that are derived from society and often requires some reflexivity as it is to do with being a social being part of a society. It is mostly acquired through social interaction and the meanings we decide of social positions and is often marked through symbols. Identity is all about similarities and differences. These help one identify their sense of self in relation to others who are similar or different. For example it can help identify distinctive characteristics that make one different from others, or identify a shared viewpoint or physical features that make one similar to others. Identity is about how we think about ourselves, other people around us and what we think others around us think of us, many people would imagine social life unimaginable without a social identity. Mukherjee grew up in a Hindu, Bengali-speaking and middle-class neighbourhood. The general belief in her birthplace was that Ã¢â¬Ëone's identity was fixed, derived from religion, caste, patrimony, and mother tongue.' One did not need to Ã¢â¬Ëdiscover' their identity because it was unchangeable and one hardly had an individual identity. As the society was one consisting of similar people, there was a sense of a shared and collective identity, even if not socially, at least within one's family it was shared. Her neighbourhood had influenced her identity greatly, especially when regarding social divisions. For example; gender. In the article, certain sentences make it clear that Mukherjee comes from a male-dominated society. Ã¢â¬ËMen provided and women were provided for. My father was a patriarch and I a pliant daughterÃ¢â¬ ¦I didn't expect myself to ever disobey or disappoint my father by setting my own goals and taking charge of my future.' It also seems that class played an important role in the social divisions of the collective identity where she lived. Ã¢â¬ËTwo commands my father had written out for meÃ¢â¬ ¦marry the bridegroom he selected for me from our caste and class'. She also claims that intercaste, interlanguage and interethnic marriages were forbidden within their traditional culture. Even emigration was frowned upon in Bengali tradition as it was seen as a form of diluting true culture. It seems that a woman's identity was set by the identity (or status) of her father, or after marriage; her husband. Mukherjee also states Ã¢â¬ËI was who I was because I was Dr. Sudhir Lal Mukherjee's daughter'. It should also be noted that Mukherjee chooses to use the word Ã¢â¬Ëwas' rather than Ã¢â¬Ëam'. This suggests that she has in a way cut off ties with her previous identity. She now sees her main identity as being American. Once in America, Mukherjee regarded herself as an Indian foreign student who intended to return to India to live. Her short and impulsive marriage ceremony led her into a whole new world regarding identities and their importance. She felt cut off from the ways of her life in Bengal as she had done something she never would have ever dreamed of doing. She now felt as if she had conflicting loyalties between two extremely different cultures. In America, women have more rights and participate in society just as much as men. This was new to Mukherjee as she now struggled to find her true identity; something she had never really paid attention to before. There had been a recent uproar in America concerning things such as Ã¢â¬Ëwho is an American?' and Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is American culture?'. These led to issues involving the scapegoating of immigrants which further pushed Mukherjee into adopting America as her new homeland and following American culture. However, Mukherjee done all with her own choice and therefore takes her citizenship very seriously. The United Nations adds new members almost every year, many Ã¢â¬Ëold nations' now find themselves challenged with Ã¢â¬Ësub' Ã¢â¬â nationalisms. It looks more and more likely that there will be a creation of more nationalities and people may lose true sight of what their nation once was. Many people in one society do not know each other or even of one another's existence, yet there is a sense of a Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity'. Anderson (1983) describes this situation as an Ã¢â¬Ëimagined community'. Members cannot know each other and despite inequality there is still an imagined meaningful friendship. One can, and does have more than one identity. Goffman (1971) talks about impression management and gives life the metaphor of a drama. Humans are seen as actors and play many different roles. He believes that they follow certain Ã¢â¬Ëscripts' which are relevant in some situations but not in others and interaction is seen as a performance to the audience. This is known as his Ã¢â¬Ëdramaturgical analogy'. William Shakespeare once famously wrote Ã¢â¬Ë All the world is a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and entrance; Each man in his time plays many parts'. This means that a concept, even if not widely agreed with, to do with Goffman's idea has been around for a long time. In the debate of culture and identity, the notion of agency is a central theme. Agency is about choice, the ability to exercise this choice in order to shape our own identities. Agency is highly related to reflexivity; a post modern idea. Reflexivity is to do with the capacity of humans to reflect upon themselves, their actions and others around them in order to change or improve themselves. Mukherjee was brought up in an environment where the notion of agency in regards to identity did not exist. Identity was fixed, and one could not change it. Therefore, when she adopted her new found culture in America, she automatically was using agency to choose and shape her own identity. Identity is ever-changing; it changes with time, place and an individual's perception of reality (Vithu Jeyaloganathan Ã¢â¬â Sri Lankan born Canadian, b. 1991). An Indian politician and founder of the Indian Constitution ( B.R.Ambedkar) once said that Ã¢â¬ËUnlike a drop of water which loses its identity when it joins the ocean, man does not lose his being in the society in which he lives. Man's life is independent. He is born not for the development of society alone, but for the development of his self.' This may be representative of India's changing views on the topic of identity and more importantly, individual identity.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Fordism and the US Economy - Essay Example The decline of Fordism was not an abrupt one; rather it was a gradual but inevitable process which can be attributed to three major factors: Advancement in technology, particularly in information and communication, the emergence of a new capitalistic model and the rise of the globalized economy. In order to understand how the Fordism came to an end, it is necessary to evaluate its significant attributes. Fordism, considered by scholars as a second type of industrial revolution, as typified in reference to Henry Ford's system of production which delineated specialization in mechanical techniques in the assembly line (Nadesan 259). The era also brought forth the rise of corporations and speedy growth in consumer culture giving rise to American consumerism. In its abstraction, Fordism is mainly the mechanization of production. It is also marked by protectionist market policies, oligopolistic competition, integration of the banking and finance business with the state and considerable focus on capital (Amin 1-40). Hence, it is safe to refer to Fordism as the ideal type Western Capitalism which puts emphasis on production techniques and organizational process as these were deemed the most effectual and profitable (Mead-A 53-61). Fordism initially transformed simple production tec hniques to a more complex mass production system which spawned the economics of scale and scope. This in turn brought about the proliferation of massive industries and organizations' emphasis on advanced plant equipment, organized production lines and higher output of production which reduced unit costs of products. Fordism also introduced a 'more doable' organizational structure in industries composed of functional units such as accounting and personnel management schemes in order to reduce cost in manufacturing. It led the reformation of industrial systems and practices as well as helped effect public policies and institutional regulations to temper the effects of market failures (Polanyi, 73). These practices included careful division of labor and standardization of components, parts and processes of a product which were easy to produce and repair. Others refer to this as to 'Fordize' or to standardize certain goods and mass manufacture them so as to make them affordable to the c ommon man (Abernathy, 57). The result of this was the total vertical integration of an industry as for instance the integration scheme of the leading car manufacturer of that period, Ford Motors, which manufactured parts needed for its own production (Chandler 77). This results to big number of employees and workers that were needed to be hired and included in the hierarchal system. This system of production, however, was not spared from criticism. Aglietta for instance, claimed that the rapid growth of production outpaced demand for consumption resulting to economic discrepancy (43). In the 60's productivity slowed down as the Fordist model of production reached its limitations as wages failed to increase and capital began to wane, worsened further by workers' fallout and union demand. Other scholars such as Gramsci argued that the crisis brought about by the Fordist form of production should be understood in its political and socio-cultural significance as this system of production was institutionalized by political legislations through which regulations with regards worker's union, wages and labor benefits were put into effect (110). This has been